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Heavy Copper PCB’s are referred to as any PCB design that incorporates 3oz/ft² of copper up to 20oz/ft² . There are some designs that surpass the 20oz/ft² , that go all the way up to 200oz/ft², but they are extremely uncommon. The two main purposes for a heavy copper design is to allow the PCB to carry more current and or to allow thermal dissipation. There are a few other purposes like connector strength and switch applications, but they are very rare. These heavy copper designs are most commonly found in power supplies and power converters.
Manufacturing heavy copper PCB’s are generally easy and only becomes extremely difficult for multi-layer designs that are in excess of 6oz copper. There are trade secrets involved in making that particular design manufacturable and reliable.