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An Interposer PCB is basically used in two ways. The most common use/design is the adaption of older legacy PCB’s to newer components. An interposer in this situation will be a simple PCB design that attaches to the newer and more complex chip and then converts those connections to the older legacy PCB. This way an OEM does not have to change the entire PCB just because the chip layout has changed. This type of interposer can also allow chip layout conversion such as a BGA, (ball grid array) to many other styles like PGA, (pin grid array) or QFP, (Quad Flat Package).
The second type of interposer design that is less common is the design that not only makes the connection between the PCB and the chip, but also incorporates test leads so that logic equipment can be connected inline. This design can be fairly complex and is usually a rigid-flex style PCB. This type is beneficial for chip designers that want to test the chip while observing it’s operation simultaneously.